"Trough Leverage Partial Perpetual Motion Machine"
"SMOT Without Magnets"
1 X 1/8 in. diameter aluminum rod (approx. 12 in. long).
1 X long k'nex member (orange, black, or tan) approx. 6 in. X 1/8 in.
2 X medium k'nex members (red or yellow) approx. 4 in. X 1/8 in.
7 X medium-small k'nex members (blue or yellow) approx. 2 in. X 1/8 in.
1 X Additional optional k'nex member, easily replaced with wire
7 X half-circle k'nex connector pieces (yellow) approx. 1.5 in. X 1 in X 1/4in.
Indefinite number of Amazon book-box quality cardboard of medium thickness.
1 X Medium (slightly larger) marble
1 X Standard marble
5 X pennies (not always necessary)
3 X packets of sculpee clay or small heavy block of wood.
Attach the 1/8 in. diameter aluminum rod to the long k'nex member, wrapping tightly with as little duct tape as is necessary to make it secure. Remove the duct tape if bunching occurs, as this will reduce the stiffness of the member. Favor lightweight over heavy connections, and making sure that the entire length is about 16 - 18 inches.
Take two half-circle k'nex connectors, and attach 2 medium k'nex members, attaching one to each, close to the flat side. Now place a member through the hole in the connectors, with the previously attached medium connectors facing the same direction, with the flat ends of the pierced connectors up. Now securely fasten the bunched medium members to the earlier-made long member, so that the hole in the connectors is located at exactly 1/4 the length of the entire long member (preferably on the side with the k'nex member---as opposed to the aluminum rod---so that there is a more stable connection) with the majority of the length opposite the members just attached. Adjust the tape if necessary to make sure that a member can freely rotate inside the connectors which are attached to the lever.
Now take two more half-circle connectors, and attach 4 medium-small members, 2 per connector, in each case forming a symmetrical 90-degree angle on the connector. Place a member of any adequate length through the secured lever-connectors and then support this new fulcrum joint with the attached medium-small members, by piercing the new half-circle connectors.
Attach two additional half-circle k'nex connectors to the ends of the taped unit (now a lever), positioning them so the flat sides are turned towards eachother, forming a narrow floating base. Then attach a medium (larger than standard) marble to this base by duct tape. Slight additional weight may be necessary later, but can be offset by re-positioning the lever forwards or back. Make sure the marble is secure, but that there are not excessive globs of duct tape, which would weigh down the machine. Later, during testing, it may be necessary to re-attach the marble using the same amount of duct tape, or to attach additional duct tape with small additional weights, or just duct tape serving as a weight.
Create a cardboard base of indefinite dimensions, at least 4 in. wide by 12 in. long.
Take more pieces of cardboard, cutting the cardboard to create two very slightly sloped panels, from 6 - 12 inches long (about 1/8 in. thick), and towards the outer end relative to the position of the lever, incorporating a slight slope of only 0.5 degrees which extends for about 4.5 - 5 inches horizontally and has a height of about 2-3 inches, such that the lever passes through at an angle of 6-5 degrees below level (this can be adjusted by raising or lowering the fulcrum or hinge), the steeper angle being the angle at which the upper surface of the lever meets the beginning of the 4.5 - 5 inch long slot in the track.
Alternately, cut sheer horizontal pieces of the dimensions 8 inches by 3 inches, and later cut the cardboard to approx. 0.5 degrees upwards slope after it is taped in place.
Tape the cardboard track members to the cardboard base, allowing room for the lever to pass through freely. Make sure the track members are taped securely by placing tape laterally over the vertical duct tape pieces, once the track is in position for the lever. Make sure that the gap is narrow enough to support a marble (when it is stabilized) along the 0.5 degree upward slope, and wide enough to accommodate the lever passing through the slot.
Test the position of the lever, allowing a gap thick enough to accommodate the long end of the lever.
Three of the medium k'nex members can be used to stabilize the separation between the two sides of the cardboard track. Tape the three members closely together, so they form a 3 X 1 unit on their shortest length. Cut two approx. 2 in. X 4 in. cardboard members, lower the lever into the slot, These should be fastened with duct tape to the bottom of the outer sides of the portion of the track unit which does not include the slope, without obstructing the lever. Then tape the cardboard members to the two side lengths of the 3 X 1 member, inside and outside of the slotted arrangement, but without obstructing the lever. The 3 X 1 serves as a separator and stabilizer between the two sides of the track, keeping the gap somewhat less than the width of a standard marble.
Tape cruder outer horizontal cardboard panels around the active track portion of the unit, e.g. on the outside side of the actual track portion where the smaller marble will be rolling, allowing some visibility, but allowing for greater control of the marble when it is being placed, and to prevent the marble from flying out when the lever is in the wrong position. Now the track portion is complete, assuming that the altitude of the lever can be adjusted, and that the angularity of the track is very slight (only about 0.5 degrees, and extending for about 4.5 - 5 inches).
Tape the k'nex fulcrum supports with the lever attached between them from an earlier step to some sort of solid base, about three inches off the surface being used, and ideally with at least 2 sq. inches of surface area at 3 in. height for attaching with tape. Packets of sculpee clay are ideal, but other things such as blocks of wood can be substituted. It is best if this item is solidly attached, because otherwise it is possible to inadvertently lose appropriate angularity, or even to damage other elements of the device. Tape the lever to this second base when it is ascertained that the angularity of the lever at 2 - 3 X the distance of the center of the counterweight is equal to 6 - 5 degrees below level, with 6 degrees occurring at the beginning of the (0.5 degree) and 4.5 - 5 inch long upward-sloping track.
Alternately, test the position of the lever with attached counterweight by trial and error, locating the angle at which the smaller marble moves when placed at the beginning of the finished track.
When the unit is complete, additional experimentation may be required to find a repeatable process, but when all the steps are followed, the process should be significantly repeatable. Here is a troubleshooting guide for the final success stage:
(1) If the lever won't move the marble upwards, maneuver the lever up and down, to see if there is any obstruction in the slotted track. There should be zero obstruction, and the marble should still have support from both sides of the track. Be careful to avoid bumps in the angularity of the upwards slope of the cardboard, because this changes the effective angle of operation. Adjust the construction or lean and rotation of the track and track base if necessary.
(2) If there is no obstruction and the counterweight will still not lift the marble at 2 - 3 X counterweight distance on the opposite end of the fulcrum, or if the counterweight catapults the marble vertically instead of pushing it horizontally, then it is time to add or subtract weight from the counterweight. Did you use a large marble, instead of a medium one, for the counterweight? If so, that is too heavy to use. Try carefully adjusting the weight of the counterweight with pennies, without the large marble. If you used a medium marble, but the smaller marble won't move, and there is absolutely no obstruction in the track portion, then try adding one or two pennies. It is possible that you used heavier plastic members, or attached the aluminum rod differently. You can also try once again adjusting the distance between the fulcrum and the slotted track.
(3) Now, experiment by trial and error. In earlier stages, it should have been certain that the counterweighted lever could push the marble horizontally. Now, with a very slight upward angle, the same process should repeat, and it should become clear that the lever returns back to its height after being operated. It is also clear that every part which operates can return to its beginning altitude, that is, when stops are placed on the range of the lever, and when the mobile marble is stopped when it drops to its beginning altitude. Over-unity!
A perpetual motion machine requires crooked levers (that is, levers designed with a double-bend somewhere between the fulcrum and the 2 X distance to allow the tracks to cohere), and a duplication of the above concept eight times, maintaining identical altitudes, with every lever end chopped at or immediately after the end of the upwards track, and with the base of every upwards track positioned immediately beneath a previous track, with an angular difference in orientation of perhaps 45 degrees for every unit that follows, creating an octogon, or perhaps with a use of short-range assistive slopes, 180 degrees and only 2 X modularity.
International Society for the Philosophy of Architecture » Ethics and Aesthetics of Architecture and the Environment